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Peter Tontonoz

Contact Information:
Mailing Address:
UCLA Path & Lab Med
Box 951662, 6770 MRL
Los Angeles, CA 90095
Phone: 310-206-4546

Peter Tontonoz, M.D., Ph.D.

Academic Title

Professor, Pathology & Laboratory Medicine


Peter Tontonoz received his B.A. from Wesleyan University and his M.D. and Ph.D. from Harvard Medical School. His Ph.D. thesis was carried out at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and his postdoctoral training at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. He completed his residency training in Pathology at the University of California, San Diego.

Dr. Tontonoz is currently Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles. The focus of his laboratory is the control of gene expression by lipids and the role of nuclear receptors in lipid metabolism. His major research contributions include the delineation of role of PPAR and LXR in adipogenesis and atherosclerosis, and elucidation of mechanisms of crosstalk between metabolism, inflammation and immunity. Dr. Tontonoz is the recipient of the Richard. E. Weitzman Award from the Endocrine Society, the Jeffrey M. Hoeg Award for Basic Science and Clinical Research from the American Heart Association, and a Bristol Myers-Squibb Freedom to Discover Award in Cardiovascular Disease. He is the Vice-President of the American Society for Clinical Investigation. Dr. Tontonoz serves on a number of editorial boards and is an Editor of Molecular and Cellular Biology.


Zhang, L., Fairall, L., Goult, B.T., Calkin, A.C., Hong, C., Millard, C.J., Tontonoz, P., and Schwabe, J.W.R The IDOL-UBE2D complex mediates sterol-dependent degradation of the LDL receptor. Genes & Development 2011; 15: 1262-74.

Villanueva, C.J., Waki, H., Godio, C., Nielsen, R., Chou, W-L, Vargas, L., Wroblewski, K., Schmedt, C., Boyadjian, R., Mandrup, S., Hevener, A., Saez, E. and Tontonoz, P. TLE3 is a dual function transcriptional coregulator of adipogenesis. Cell Metabolism 2011; 13: 413-27.

Scotti, E., Hong, C., Yoshinaga, Y., Fong, L., Noam Zelcer, Boyadjian, R., de Jong, P.J., Young, S.G. and Tontonoz, P. Targeted disruption of the Idol gene alters cellular regulation of the LDLR by sterols and LXR agonists. Mol. Cell. Biol. 2011; 31: 1885-93.

Weisglass-Volkov, D., Calkin, A.C, Tusie-Luna, T., Sinsheimer, J.S., Zelcer, N., Riba, L., Vargas Tino, M., Ordoñez-Sánchez, M.L, Cruz-Bautista, I., Aguilar-Salinas, C.A., Tontonoz, P. and Pajukanta, P. The asparagine allele of N342S polymorphism in the human MYLIP(IDOL) gene is associated with high serum total cholesterol levels and increased low-density lipoprotein receptor degradation. J. Clin. Invest. 2011; 121: 3062-71.

Beaven, S.W., Wroblewski, K., Wang, J., Bensinger, S.J., Tsukamoto, H. and Tontonoz, P. LXR signaling is a determinant of stellate cell activation and susceptibility to fibrotic liver disease. . Gastroenterology 2011; 140: 1052-62.

Hong, C., Walczak, R., Dhamko, H., Bradley, M.N., Boyadjian, R., Salazar, J.V. and Tontonoz, P. Constitutive activation of LXR signaling in macrophages regulates lipid metabolic and inflammatory gene expression: Identification of ARL7 as a direct target. . J. Lipid Res. 2011; 52: 531-9.

Hong, C., Duit, S., Jalonen, P., Out, R., Scheer, L., Boyadjian, R., Rodenburg, K., Foley, E., Korhonen, L., Lindholm, D., Nimph, J., Van Berkel, T.J.M. Tontonoz, P and Zelcer, N. The E3-ubiquitin ligase IDOL induces the degradation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family members VLDLR and ApoER2. J. Biol. Chem. 2010; 285: 19720-6.

Feig, J.E., Pineda-Torra, I., Sanson, M., Bradley, M.N., Vengrenyuk, Y., Gautier, E.L., Rubinstein, D., Hong, C., Liu, J., Rooijen, N., Bogunovic, D., Bhardwaj, N., Garabedian, M.J., Tontonoz, P., and Fisher, E.A. LXR promotes maximal egress of monocyte-derived cells from mouse aortic plaques during atherosclerosis regression. J. Clin. Invest. 2010; 120: 4415-24.

Weinstein Michael M, Tu Yiping, Beigneux Anne P, Davies Brandon S J, Gin Peter, Voss Constance, Walzem Rosemary L, Reue Karen, Tontonoz Peter, Bensadoun André, Fong Loren G, Young Stephen G Cholesterol intake modulates plasma triglyceride levels in glycosylphosphatidylinositol HDL-binding protein 1-deficient mice.. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2010; 30(11): 2106-13.

Calkin, A.C. and Tontonoz, P. Genome-wide association studies identify new targets in cardiovascular disease. Science Transl. Med. 2010; 2: 48-49.

Calkin Anna C, Tontonoz Peter Liver x receptor signaling pathways and atherosclerosis.. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2010; 30(8): 1513-8.

Park, K.W., Waki, H., Choi, S.P., Park, K.M. and Tontonoz P The small molecule phenamil is a modulator of adipocyte differentiation and PPAR? expression The small molecule phenamil is a modulator of adipocyte differentiation and PPAR? expression. J. Lipid. Res. 2010; 51: 2775-84.

Bensinger, S. J. Tontonoz, P. A Nurr1 pathway for neuroprotection. Cell 2009; 137: 26-28.

A-Gonzalez, N., Bensinger, S.J., Bradley, M.N., Zelcer, N., Beceiro, S., Hong, C., Deniz, J., Ramirez, C.M., Gallardo, G., Galarreta, C., Salazar, J., Lopez, F., Parks, J., Edwards, P.A., Andujar, M., Tontonoz, P. and Castrillo, A. Apoptotic cells promote their own clearance and immune tolerance through activation of LXR signaling. Immunity 2009; 31: 245-58.

Chao LC, Wroblewski K, Zhang Z, Pei L, Vergnes L, Ilkayeva OR, Ding SY, Reue K, Watt MJ, Newgard CB, Pilch PF, Hevener AL and Tontonoz P Insulin resistance and altered systemic glucose metabolism in mice lacking Nur77. Diabetes 2009; 58: 2788-96.

Zelcer, N., Hong, C., Boyadjian, R., and Tontonoz, P. LXR regulates cholesterol uptake through Idol-dependent ubiquitination of the LDL receptor. Science 2009; 325: 100-104.

Dean, J.T., Tran, L., Beaven, S., Tontonoz, P., Reue, K., Dipple, K.M., Liao, J.C. Resistance to Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice with Synthetic Glyoxylate Shunt. Cell Metabolism 2009; 9: 525-536.

Park, K.W., Waki, H., Kim, W-K., Davies, B.S.J., Young, S.G., Parhami, F. and Tontonoz, P. The small molecule phenamil induces osteoblast differentiation and mineralization.. Mol. Cell. Biol. 2009; 29: 3905-3914.

Hummasti, S., and Tontonoz, P. Adopting new orphans into the family of metabolic regulators. Molecular Endocrinology 2008; 22: 1743-1753.

Jiang, Q., Mandrekar, S., Lee, C.Y.D., Wilkinson, B., Cramer, P., Zelcer, N., Mann, K., Lamb, B., Willson, T.M., Collins, J.L., Richardson, J.C., Holtzman, D., Tontonoz, P., and Landreth, G.E. ApoE promotes the proteolytic degradation of Abeta. Neuron 2008; 58: 681-693.

Gallardo-Soler, A., Gomez-Nieto, C., Luisa Campo, M., Marathe, C., Tontonoz, P., Castrillo, A., Corraliza, I. Arginase I induction by modified lipoproteins in macrophages: A PPARgamma/delta-mediated effect that links lipid metabolism and immunity. Molecular Endocrinology 2008; 22: 1394-402.

Tontonoz, P. and Spiegelman, B.M. Beyond fat: the diverse biology of PPARgamma. Ann Rev Biochem 2008; 77: 289-312.

Hummasti, S., Hong, C., Bensinger, S.J., and Tontonoz, P HRASLS3 is a PPAR?-selective target gene that promotes adipocyte differentiation . J. Lipid Res. 2008; 49: 2535-44.

Park, K.W., Waki, H., Villanueva, C.J., Monticelli, L., Hong, C., Kang, S., MacDougald, O.A., Goldrath, A.W., and Tontonoz, P. Id2 is a small molecule-inducible modulator of PPARgamma expression and adipocyte differentiation. Molecular Endocrinology 2008; 22: 2038-2048.

Chao, L.C., Bensinger, S.J., Wroblewski, K., and Tontonoz, P. Inhibition of adipocyte differentiation by Nur77, Nurr1 and Nor-1. Molecular Endocrinology 2008; 22: 2596-608.

Bensinger, S.J. and Tontonoz, P. Integration of metabolism and inflammation by lipid-activated nuclear receptors. Nature 2008; 454: 470-477.

Bensinger, S.J., Bradley, M.N., Joseph, S.B., Zelcer, N., Janssen, E.M., Hausner, M.A., Shih, R., Parks, J., Edwards, P.A., Jamieson, B.D., and Tontonoz, P. LXR signaling couples sterol metabolism to proliferation in the acquired immune response. Cell 2008; 134: 97-111.

Marathe C, Bradley MN, Hong C, Chao LC, Wilpitz D, Salazar J, and Tontonoz P. Preserved glucose tolerance in high fat diet fed C57BL/6 mice transplanted with PPAR?-/-, PPAR?-/-, PPAR??-/- or LXR??-/- bone marrow. J. Lipid Res. 2008; 50: 214-224.

Davies, B.S.J., Waki, H., Beigneux, A.P., Farber, E., Weinstein, M.M., Wilpitz, D.C., Tai, L., Evans, R.M., Fong, L.G., Tontonoz, P., and Young, S.G. The expression of GPIHBP1, an endothelial cell binding site for lipoprotein lipase and chylomicrons, is induced by PPAR?. Molecular Endocrinology 2008; 22: 2496-504.

Zelcer, N., Khanlou, N., Clare, R., Jiang, Q., Reed-Geaghan, E.G., Landreth, G.E., Vinters, H.V.V., and Tontonoz, P. Attenuation of neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's disease pathology by liver X receptors. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 2007; 104: 10601-10606.

Bradley, M.N., Hong, C., Joseph, S.B., Chen, M., Wang. X., Lusis, J., Collins, A., Hseuh, W.A. Collins, J.L., Tangirala, R. and Tontonoz, P. Ligand activation of LXRb reverses whole body cholesterol overload and atherosclerosis in mie lacking LXRa and apoE. J. Clin. Invest 2007; 117: 2337-2346.

Molteni ,V., Li, X., Nabakka, J., Liang, F., Wityak, J., Koder, A., Vargas, L., Romeo, R., Mitro, N., Mak, P.A., Seidel, H.M., Haslam, J.A., Chow, D., Tuntland, T., Spalding, T.A., Brock, A., Bradley, M., Castrillo, A., Tontonoz, P., and Saez, E. N-Acylthiadiazolines, a new class of Liver X Receptor agonists with selectivity for LXRbeta. J Med Chem 2007; 50: 4255-4259.

Chao, L.C., Zhang, Z., Tsugumichi, S., Tontonoz, P. and Pilch, P. Nur77 coordinately regulates expression of genes linked to glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Molecular Endocrinology 2007; 21: 2152-2163.

Waki, H., Park, K.W., Mitro, N., Pei, L., Damoiseaux, R., Wilpitz. D., Reue, K., Saez, E., Tontonoz, P. The small molecule harmine is an anti-diabetic cell-type specific regulator of PPARg expression. Cell Metabolism 2007; 5: 357-370.

Chow, E.K., Castrillo, A., Shahangian, A., O'Connell, R.M., Pei, L., Tontonoz, P., and Cheng, G. Critical role of IRF3-dependent RXRa repression in hepatotoxicity associated with viral infections. J. Exp Med. 2006; 203: 2589-2602.

Baldan A, Pei L, Lee R, Tarr P, Tangirala RK, Weinstein MM, Frank J, Li AC, Tontonoz P, Edwards PA. Impaired Development of Atherosclerosis in Hyperlipidemic Ldlr-/- and ApoE-/- Mice Transplanted With Abcg1-/- Bone Marrow. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2006; 26: 2301-2307.

Pei L, Waki H, Vaitheesvaran B, Wilpitz DC, Kurland I and Tontonoz P NR4A orphan nuclear receptors are transcriptional regulators of hepatic glucose metabolism. Nature Medicine 2006; 12: 1048-1055.

Pei L, Castrillo A, Tontonoz P Regulation of macrophage inflammatory gene expression by the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77. Molecular Endocrinology. 2006; 20: 786-794.

Hummasti S and Tontonoz P The PPAR N-terminal domain controls isotype-selective gene expression and adipogenesis. Molecular Endocrinology 2006; 20: 1261-1275.

Marathe, C., Bradley, M.N., Hong, C., Lopez, F., Ruiz de Galaraeta, C.M., Tontonoz, P., and Castrillo, A. The arginase II gene is an anti-inflammatory target of LXR in macrophages. J. Biol. Chem. 2006; 281: 32197-32206.

Arai S, Shelton JM, Chen M, Bradley MN, Castrillo A, Bookout AL, Mak PA, Edwards PA, Mangelsdorf DJ, Tontonoz P, Miyazaki T A role for the apoptosis inhibitory factor AIM/Spalpha/Api6 in atherosclerosis development. Cell Metabolism. 2005; 1(3): 201-13.

Lin J, Yang R, Tarr PT, Wu PH, Handschin C, Yang W, Pei L, Uldry M, Tontonoz P, Newgard CB and Spiegelman BM Hyperlipidemic effects of dietary saturated fats mediated through PGC-1b coactivation of SREBP. Cell 2005; 120: 261-273.

Chen M, Beaven S, Tontonoz P Identification and characterization of two alternatively spliced transcript variants of human liver X receptor alpha. Journal of Lipid Research. 2005; 46(12): 2570-9.

Pei L, Castrillo A, Chen M, Hoffmann A, Tontonoz P Induction of NR4A orphan nuclear receptor expression in macrophages in response to inflammatory stimuli.. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. . 2005; 280(32): 29256-62.

Sheth SS, Castellani LW, Chari S, Wagg C, Thipphavong CK, Bodnar JS, Tontonoz P, Attie AD, Lopaschuk GD, Lusis AJ Thioredoxin-interacting protein deficiency disrupts the fasting-feeding metabolic transition.. Journal of Lipid Research. . 2005; 46(1): 123-34.

Joseph, S.B., Bradley, M., Castrillo, A., Bruhn, K., Mak, P.A., Pei, L., Hogenesch, J., O'Connell, R.M., Cheng, G., Saez, E., Miller, J.F., and Tontonoz, P. LXR-dependent gene expression is important for macrophage survival and the innate immune response. Cell 2004; 119: 299-309.

Hummasti S, Laffitte BA, Watson MA, Galardi C, Chao LC, Ramamurthy L, Moore JT, Tontonoz P Liver X receptors are regulators of adipocyte gene expression but not differentiation: identification of apoD as a direct target. Journal of Lipid Research. . 2004; 45(4): 616-25.

Castrillo A, Tontonoz P Nuclear receptors in macrophage biology: at the crossroads of lipid metabolism and inflammation. Annual review of cell and developmental biology. 2004; 20: 455-80.

Walczak R, Joseph SB, Laffitte BA, Castrillo A, Pei L, Tontonoz P Transcription of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene in macrophages is regulated by liver X receptors. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2004; 279(11): 9905-11.

Laffitte BA, Chao LC, Li J, Walczak R, Hummasti S, Joseph SB, Castrillo A, Wilpitz DC, Mangelsdorf DJ, Collins JL, Saez E, Tontonoz P Activation of liver X receptor improves glucose tolerance through coordinate regulation of glucose metabolism in liver and adipose tissue.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. . 2003; 100(9): 5419-24.

Castrillo A, Joseph SB, Vaidya SA, Haberland M, Fogelman AM, Cheng G, Tontonoz P Crosstalk between LXR and toll-like receptor signaling mediates bacterial and viral antagonism of cholesterol metabolism.. Molecular Cell. . 2003; 12(4): 805-16.

Castrillo A, Joseph SB, Marathe C, Mangelsdorf DJ and Tontonoz P Liver X receptor dependent inhibition of MMP-9 gene expression in macrophages. J. Biol. Chem. 2003; 278: 10443-10449.

Tontonoz P, Mangelsdorf DJ Liver X receptor signaling pathways in cardiovascular disease.. Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) . 2003; 17(6): 985-93.

Joseph SB, Castrillo A, Laffitte BA, Mangelsdorf DJ, Tontonoz P Reciprocal regulation of inflammation and lipid metabolism by liver X receptors.. Nature Medicine. . 2003; 9(2): 213-9.

Laffitte BA, Joseph SB, Chen M, Castrillo A, Repa J, Wilpitz D, Mangelsdorf D, Tontonoz P The phospholipid transfer protein gene is a liver X receptor target expressed by macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions.. Molecular and Cellular Biology. . 2003; 23(6): 2182-91.

Joseph SB, Laffitte BA, Patel PH, Watson MA, Matsukuma KE, Walczak R, Collins JL, Osborne TF, Tontonoz P Direct and indirect mechanisms for regulation of fatty acid synthase gene expression by liver X receptors. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2002; 277(13): 11019-25.

Tangirala RK, Bischoff ED, Joseph SB, Wagner BL, Walczak R, Laffitte BA, Daige CL, Thomas D, Heyman RA, Mangelsdorf DJ, Wang X, Lusis AJ, Tontonoz P, Schulman IG Identification of macrophage liver X receptors as inhibitors of atherosclerosis.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. . 2002; 99(18): 11896-901.

Laffitte BA and Tontonoz P Orphan nuclear receptors find a home in the arterial wall. Curr. Atheroscler. Rep. 2002; 4: 213-221.

Walczk R and Tontonoz P PPARadigms and PPARadoxes: expanding roles for PPARg in the control of lipid metabolism. J. Lipid Res. 2002; 43: 177-186.

Mak PA, Laffitte BA, Desrumaux C, Joseph SB, Curtiss L, Mangelsdorf DJ, Tontonoz P and Edwards PA Regulated expression of the apoE/C-I/C-IV/C-II gene cluster in murine and human macrophages: a critical role for the nuclear receptors LXRa and LXRb. J. Biol. Chem. 2002; 277: 31900-31908.

Kast HR, Goodwin B, Tarr PT, Jones SA, Anisfeld AM, Stoltz CM, Tontonoz P, Kliewer S, Willson TM, Edwards PA Regulation of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (ABCC2) by the nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor, farnesoid X-activated receptor, and constitutive androstane receptor. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2002; 277(4): 2908-15.

Joseph SB, McKilligin E, Pei L, Watson MA, Collins AR, Laffitte BA, Chen M, Noh G, Goodman J, Hagger GN, Tran J, Tippin TK, Wang X, Lusis AJ, Hsueh WA, Law RE, Collins JL, Willson TM, Tontonoz P Synthetic LXR ligand inhibits the development of atherosclerosis in mice.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. . 2002; 99(11): 7604-9.

Chawla A, Boisvert WA, Lee C, Laffitte BA, Barak Y, Joseph SB, Nagy L, Liao D, Edwards PA, Curtiss LK, Evans RM and Tontonoz P A PPARg-LXR-ABCA1 pathway in macrophages is involved in cholesterol efflux and atherogenesis. Molecular Cell 2001; 7: 161-171.

Laffitte BA, Joseph SB, Walczak R, Pei L, Wilpitz DC, Collins JL and Tontonoz P Autoregulation of the human LXRa promoter. Mol. Cell. Biol. 2001; 21: 7558-7568.

Laffitte BA, Repa JJ, Joseph SB, Wilpitz DC, Kast HR, Mangelsdorf DJ, Tontonoz P LXRs control lipid-inducible expression of the apolipoprotein E gene in macrophages and adipocytes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2001; 98(2): 507-12.

Chawla A, Barak Y, Nagy L, Liao D, Tontonoz P and Evans RM PPARg dependent and independent effects on macrophage gene expression in lipid metabolism and inflammation. Nature Medicine 2001; 7: 48-52.

Ahuja HS, Crombie DL, Boehm M, Leibowitz MD, Heyman RA, Depre C, Nagy L, Tontonoz P and Davies P Tissue-specific effects of RXR and PPARg ligands on metabolic gene expression in diabetic rodents.. Mol. Pharmacol. 2001; 59: 765-773.

Venkateswaren A, Laffitte B, Joseph S, Mak A, Edwards PA and Tontonoz P Control of cellular cholesterol efflux by the nuclear oxysterol receptor LXRa. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2000; 97: 12097-12102.

Lee, H., Shi, W., Tontonoz, P., Wang, S., Evans, R.M., Berliner, J.A., and Nagy, L. Oxidized phospholipids activate PPARa and induce endothelial synthesis of monocyte activators.. Circulation Research 2000; 87: 516-521.

Tontonoz P and Nagy L Regulation of macrophage gene expression by PPARg: implications for cardiovascular disease.. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 1999; 10: 485-490.

Saez E, Tontonoz P, Nelson M, Alvarez JGA, Baird SM, Thomazy V and Evans RM Activators of the nuclear receptor PPARg promote colonic polyp formation in the MIN mouse. Nature Medicine 1998; 4: 1058-1061.

Nagy L, Tontonoz P, Alvarez JGA, Chen H and Evans RM Oxidized LDL regulates macrophage gene expression through ligand activation of PPARg. Cell 1998; 93: 229-240.

Tontonoz P, Nagy L, Alvarez JGA, Thomazy V and Evans RM PPARg promotes monocyte/macrophage differentiation and uptake of oxidized LDL. Cell 1998; 93: 241-252.

Devine JH, Eubank DW, Clouthier DE, Tontonoz P, Spiegelman BM, Hammer RE and Beale EG Adipose expression of the phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxykinase promoter requires peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and 9-cis- retinoic acid receptor binding to an adipocyte-specific enhancer in vivo.. J. Biol. Chem 1997; 274: 13604-13612.

Hollenberg AN, Susulic VS, Madura JP, Zhang B, Moller DE, Tontonoz P, Sarraf P, Spiegelman BM and Lowell BB Functional antagonism between C/EBPa and PPARg on the leptin promoter.. J. Biol. Chem. 1997; 272: 5283-5290.

Mueller E, Saraf P, Tontonoz P, Evans RM, Martin KJ, Zhang M, Fletcher CDM, Singer S and Spiegelman BM Terminal differentiation of human breast cancer through PPARg. Molecular Cell 1997; 1: 465-470.

Tontonoz P, Singer S, Forman BM, Sarraf P, Fletcher JA, Fletcher CDM, Brun RP, Mueller E, Altiok S, Oppenheim H, Evans RM, Spiegelman BM Terminal differentiation of human liposarcoma cells induced by ligands for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor g- and the retinoid X receptor.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1997; 94: 237-241.

Brun RP, Tontonoz P, Forman BM, Ellis R, Chen J, Evans RM, Spiegelman BM Differential activation of adipogenesis by multiple PPAR isoforms.. Genes & Development. . 1996; 10(8): 974-84.

Forman BM, Tontonoz P, Chen J, Brun RP, Spiegelman BM and Evans RM 15-deoxy-D12,14-Prostaglandin J2 is a ligand for the adipocyte determination factor PPARg. Cell 1995; 83: 803-812.

Tontonoz P, Hu E, Devine J, Beale EG and Spiegelman BM PPARg2 regulates adipose expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene. Mol. Cell. Biol. 1995; 15: 351-357.

Hu E, Tontonoz P and Spiegelman BM Transdifferentiation of myoblasts by the adipogenic transcription factors PPARg and C/EBPa.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1995; 92: 9856-9860.

Tontonoz P, Hu E and Spiegelman BM Stimulation of adipogenesis in fibroblasts by PPARg2, a lipid-activated transcription factor. Cell 1994; 79: 1147-1156.

Tontonoz P, Hu E, Graves RA, Budavari A, Spiegelman B mPPARg2:tissue-specific regulator of an adipocyte enhancer.. Genes & Development 1994; 8: 1224-1234.

Tontonoz P, Kim JB, Graves RA, Spiegelman BM ADD1: a novel helix-loop-helix transcription factor associated with adipocyte determination and differentiation.. Molecular and cellular biology. . 1993; 13(8): 4753-9.

Spiegelman BM, Choy L, Hotamisligil GS, Graves RA, Tontonoz P Regulation of adipocyte gene expression in differentiation and syndromes of obesity/diabetes. The Journal of biological chemistry . 1993; 268(10): 6823-6.

Graves RA, Tontonoz P, Spiegelman BM Analysis of a tissue-specific enhancer: ARF6 regulates adipogenic gene expression.. Molecular and cellular biology. . 1992; 12(3): 1202-8.

Graves RA, Tontonoz P, Ross SR, Spiegelman BM Identification of a potent adipocyte-specific enhancer: involvement of an NF-1-like factor. Genes & Development. . 1991; 5(3): 428-37.

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